by Lee Foster
Although Alaska is an immense area of real estate, it is possible to see a fair sample of the state in a two-week period if you plan carefully and use optimum air, sea, and land transportation. Almost all visitors to Alaska come during the summer months from June through August.
Alaska is unlike other travel destinations where you can casually search for transportation and accommodations. Prudent Alaska travel requires that you have confirmed lodging and transportation before your trip. There just aren’t any extra lodgings or places on the buses for the drop-in visitor during the tourist season. Moreover, there are hundreds of miles of spruce forests between outposts of civilization.
Despite the fact that you can make all the arrangements yourself, traveling independently, the vast spaces and limited accommodations of the state have made it primarily a travel-agent-and-tour-operator-cruise pattern of travel. The cruise industry is a major player, with Holland America Westours and Princess Cruises’ Alaska Cruisetours among the more prominent.
To make a grand tour of Alaska in two weeks, consider flying to Anchorage to see this metropolis. Then train north to Denali National Park and Preserve for a day or two of viewing the wildlife from the Park Service guided buses. Following this, you can train or bus north to Fairbanks to see the pipeline, the Alaska Museum, and the salmon camp of Howard Luke. Then jet south to Juneau, the state capital. Take a cruise ship south to Vancouver, with visits to Glacier Bay National Park and Sitka, the original Russian settlement, along the way. The itinerary could also be reversed. Cruises often start in Vancouver or in Seattle, with the cruise portion first, then the land experience.
Here is each stop in more detail.
Anchorage is the gateway to the main body of Alaska. In Aleut, the word Alaska simply means “the great land.”
About half of the state’s total population lives in Anchorage. As you fly in, you’ll see the city framed by mountains, set on a plain a few feet above the ocean, perilously vulnerable to a tsunami. When you taxi down the runway, purple fireweed is the visually-dominant wildflower, especially in late summer, although the forget-me-not is the state flower.
On your first night in Anchorage, the long summer daylight period will become apparent. At 11 p.m. the twilight continues to persist. The flip side of summer light is winter darkness, which prompts some Alaskans to seek a winter home “outside,” meaning in the lower 48 states or Hawaii. Short rest-and-recuperation flights south, especially to Hawaii, recharge the inner solar energy of those citizens who can afford to be mobile in winter. Anchorage citizens so appreciate the summer light, as an antidote to seven months of winter and darkness, that they take much pride in their lawns. There is a Lawn of the Year contest. Hanging-baskets of flowers adorn almost every house. Greenhouses are popular, giving ornamental flowers and vegetables an early start in spring and prolonged growth in autumn. Ironically, the hours of summer light are so long that the total light falling on plants approximates that found in Illinois or other breadbasket states. However, all the growth must occur in a four-month period from June through September.
The city of Anchorage is spread out, 1,955 square miles, so take a city tour to orient yourself. These tours are offered from all the hotels. The Hotel Captain Cook and Anchorage Hilton are among the main downtown lodgings.
At Resolution Park, you’ll find a statue to Captain James Cook, who sailed his ships in 1778 into the inlet near Anchorage that now bears his name. Cook was searching for a northwest passage trade route.
Anchorage originated as a camp and transport site in 1914 for the developing Alaska Railroad, located at the edge of the Cook Inlet.
Within the city you’ll see salmon spawning in streams. Several types of salmon can be found entering Alaska streams for their final and fatal mission to reproduce in the same waters where they were born. The salmon species are the King or Chinook, whose red and oily meat is most highly prized by gourmets, the chum or dog salmon, which was the main food for sled dogs, the fall chum, the silver or coho salmon, plus the pink or red salmon.
Earthquake Park commemorates the Good Friday quake of 1964. Outsiders in the lower 48 states may have forgotten this Alaska earthquake, but Anchorage citizens remember it well. The quake first was measured at 8.6 on the Richter scale and later revised upwards to 9.2, greater than the San Francisco quake of 1906. Moreover, the duration was impressive, with the earth heaving for a full five minutes. Anchorage, at the epicenter, was left in shambles, with 10-foot drops in soil level. One hundred people lost their lives and 4,000 were left homeless. Anchorage’s older citizens divide all events into those before and those after the Quake. Earthquake Park attempts to portray for the visitor the force of the quake. When vegetation covers the ground, however, it is difficult for the layman to appreciate fully the impact. The view of the skyline from the park is well worth the trip out. Anchorage citizens, shaken each summer by a few minor quakes, remain fearful of possible future major quakes.
The main issues that excite Anchorage citizens, besides the natural beauty of the state, are: Is all the money from oil being used wisely? and Who finally owns and will own this state in the future?
For tourism information on Alaska, one good source is the Alaska Travel Industry Association at http://www.travelalaska.com.
Denali National Park
Denali National Park’s old name was McKinley National Park. Alaskans favored renaming the park after the Athabascan Indian word for the mountain, denali, meaning “the high one.” The park now bears that name. Technically, the peak itself retains the name Mt. McKinley, after the American president, William McKinley.
Only after you leave Anchorage and spend most of a day on a train ride to Denali Park, noting how short the distance is on the map, does the size of Alaska begin to sink in. Alaska is larger than all of California, Oregon, and Washington combined. Alaskans like to joke, but there is a basis in fact, that if the state of Alaska were cut in two, Texas would be the third largest state. The 49th state added a full fifth of the land size of the first 48. Roads penetrate only a small portion of this vast area.
The human record in Alaska goes back some 30,000 years to small groups of Athabascan Indians, Aleuts, and Eskimos, whose ancestors originally followed their caribou herds across the Bering Sea, when it was frozen, or who crossed from Russia in small boats.
Mt. McKinley, at 20,320 feet, is the tallest mountain in North America. Both the height of the mountain and its northerly position account for a perpetual snow and glacier appearance, which only a third of the summer visitors are fortunate enough to see, due to overcast cloud cover.
However, the mountain is only the second major attraction of the park. The original rationale for creating the park was the preservation of wildlife. Viewing wildlife in a preserved natural environment is the special experience the park offers. A typical visitor who takes the Wildlife Tour, operated in buses by the Park Service, will see the Big Four–grizzly bears, moose, Dall sheep, and caribou. If you are fortunate, you may also see wolves.
Cars can’t be used for exploring within the park. Shuttle buses and Wildlife Tours operated by the Park Service control all transportation. This is exactly the opposite approach from Yellowstone, our other great park for wildlife viewing. Denali will never allow a tradition of garbage-fed bears, such as Yellowstone once encouraged. The emphasis here is on minimum impact.
The Wildlife Tours amount to six hours on a bus with a competent naturalist-driver, who interprets the park and assists in wildlife sighting. When wildlife is sighted, you view it from the bus or, if you will not disturb the wildlife, from near the bus. The tour includes a box lunch. Roads are bumpy, so come prepared for a rigorous trip. Tours leave early in the morning and in mid-afternoon to catch the best viewing time. For every traveler, this tour is highly recommended.
Free shuttle buses make the same trip in and out of the park, allowing you to get off at designated points for a hike. The shuttle buses move quickly and don’t stop to view the animals or offer naturalist interpretation.
Distances in the park can seem boundless and there is only one road in and out. It takes four hours to go from the park entrance to the final stop, at Wonder Lake, deep in the park.
One of the special Park Service interpretive efforts is sled dog demonstrations, which takes place near the park entrance.
The geological story of Denali is a compelling part of your experience. Glacier-fed rivers pour forth and twist across sediment beds in a braided pattern through the valleys. In summer, the rivers turn grey because of the ground rock, called “rock flour,” crushed by the weight of the creeping glaciers.
Among the few lodgings at Denali, the rustic but comfortable McKinley Chalets or Denali Princess Lodge are good choices.
For further information on Denali, see the Park Service website at http://www.nps.gov/dena.
Fairbanks is in the interior of Alaska, a landscape far more severe than the temperate coastal areas of Anchorage or Juneau-Skagway-Sitka.
At Fairbanks, where winters are cold and dark, temperatures commonly drop to Farenheit 45 below, without considering the wind chill factor. Such conditions can provoke introspective self-knowledge or cabin fever approaching madness, depending on your temperament. A sobering detail at the University of Alaska campus is that all the parking lot spaces have electric sockets where you plug in the heater cables on your engine to keep the motor from freezing up while you attend classes. The electrical cost to keep a car plugged in overnight, producing enough heat to save the engine, is high. In Fairbanks, you need to be tough to survive.
One consolation in winter is the passionate sport of dog mushing, the official state sport. Dog mushing becomes an international competition in February. Mushers come from across Alaska, Canada, and from the U.S. as well. The popularity of this sport is broad and the practical use of dogs in Alaska is considerable. If you forget to plug in your car or snowmobile during a Fairbanks cold spell, the engine will freeze up and be useless. Dogs don’t exhibit such behavior. Dogs, however, require about a salmon a day or the equivalent in commercial dog food to survive. The Musher’s Museum in Fairbanks celebrates the dog cult, which peaks in two grueling winter races, the Iditarod and the Yukon Quest.
Summer in Fairbanks, when most visitors come, offers a more hospitable environment. It is light so long during the day that a famous midnight baseball game played on June 21 requires no electric lights. Parents allow their children to play outside long after the usual bedtime, well aware of the need for humans, as well as plants, to absorb as much sunlight as possible in the luxurious but brief summer sun time.
Fairbanks considers itself the Golden Heart of Alaska because of the substantial gold discoveries here, in the middle of the country, in September 1900. Typically for Alaska, Fairbanks has been a boom and bust town. The booms occurred when gold was discovered in 1900, when attention focused on Alaska as a defense post in World War II, and when pipeline employees were cashing their $30/hour paychecks during the building of the 800-mile pipe 1973-1977.
Orient yourself by stopping in at the downtown Log Cabin Information Center. Next to the log cabin you’ll find a swiveling signpost marker indicating the distances to various places in the U.S. and around the globe. At Pioneer Park, also next to the log house, you can see a bronze statue of the early pioneers and markers with the names of the early families. Fairbanks is as far north as most Alaska travelers go, except for those dedicated few who take charter flights beyond the Arctic Circle.
A downtown walk can take you from the Visitor Center to the Cheena River bank. There you’ll see remnants of homes from the era when trader E. T. Barnette, gold discoverer Felix Pedro, and legal arranger Judge James J. Wickersham founded the town. Wickersham asked Barnette to name the town, when the post office was established, after Wickersham’s friend, Senator Charles Fairbanks from Indiana.
Away from downtown, be sure to see the Alaska Museum at the University of Alaska. The museum divides the state into sections, each represented by the genius of its lifestyle or crafts. A huge Kodiak brown bear greets you in the foyer. One of the unusual exhibits is an ox-like animal that was attacked and killed by lions, then frozen in the tundra some 60,000 years ago, preserving its carcass as if in a supermarket freezer. Now the carcass is restored to its moment of death.
Be sure to see the defining symbol of modern life in Alaska, the 800-mile pipeline that brings oil from Prudoe Bay in the Arctic down to Valdez, the ice-free port east of Anchorage. Seeing the pipeline is a little like seeing grizzly bears or glacial ice up close. These are monumental Alaskan experiences. At one spot on the pipeline tour, you can stick your hand through a hole in the outer pipe, past the fiberglass insulation, to feel the 140 degree warmth of the interior pipe and flowing oil. The oil is kept warm because of the friction created by pumping it at high speed through the pipe. To keep the permafrost from becoming damaged by the warmth, the pipe is elevated wherever permafrost occurs, which is along half of the total distance. The warmth of the oil is crucial for the oil to flow rather than congeal at times of extreme cold. Today the pipeline transmits about 600,000 barrels of oil a day, 365 days a year.
Another interesting experience available in Fairbanks acquaints you with both the Indians and the riverboat world of the Gold Rush traders, a kind of Mark Twain world of the north. The outing takes place on a sternwheeler named Discovery III. The tour is run by the Binkley family, which has been operating riverboats here since 1898. Only in recent decades have these trade and postal boats become tourism boats. The trip takes you down the spring-fed Cheena River and up the glacial Tanana River. Rivers were the roads of commerce during the great gold rushes of Alaska. Near Fairbanks, the Cripple Creek strike was worth $100 million in gold, which would be the equivalent of $1 billion today.
You disembark at a simulated Athabascan Indian village, where you see how king and chum salmon were caught in fish wheels and dried or smoked. The salmon fed not only the Athabascans, but their sled dogs, on which they relied for winter transportation. You see how food was stored in high caches, which stood on poles out of the reach of bears. Several young Athabascan women give talks and demonstrations during the trip. The hard life of the Athabascans becomes apparent as you visit the area. The lushness of summer growth is deceptive because it is so brief. Life was a continual struggle for the Athabascans, who spent almost all of their time searching for food. The moose, especially, was a great prize because it might yield 1,300 pounds of meat.
In the evening in Fairbanks, be sure to enjoy Alaskaland’s outdoor salmon barbecue. Follow this with the Eskimo-Indian Olympics show, which exhibits feats of skill needed to survive in the wilds of Alaska. Of particular note is the degree of cooperation, rather than competition, needed in the society for well-being. The Palace Theater and Saloon Show presents a musical revue of Alaskan life from the Russian era to the recent oil-boom,
The Westmark is a dependable lodgings. For a classy restaurant, try the Bear ‘n Seal at the Westmark.
For Fairbanks information, see http://www.explorefairbanks.com.
Juneau, Skagway, and Sitka
Juneau, Skagway, and Sitka are cities in the southeast panhandle of Alaska. They differ sharply from the more northerly areas of the state. Precipitation here is high, comparable to Washington state, so the trees, such as Sitka spruce, grow to great heights and can be harvested for lumber or pulp.
The area is the most historic in Alaska. Sitka was the major Russian colony during the fur-gathering era. At Juneau, prospectors made major Alaska gold discoveries. From Skagway, some 20,000 hardy miners, plus many women and children, climbed over the Chilkoot Pass to the Yukon Gold Rush of 1898.
A special Marine Highway ferry system ties the region together, operating between Seattle and Skagway. Waterways, shoreline, and boating become defining aspects of life here. Southeast Alaska has 33,000 miles of coastline, fully 68 percent of the Alaska coast. One out of five people owns a boat. Air and sea transport offer the only access to the region.
The flight to this area from Fairbanks on a clear day is one of the most spectacular views on the planet. As you leave Fairbanks, you see the spine of the Alaska Range of mountains and the vast stretches of uninhabited and rugged land between cities. The snowy peak of Mt. McKinley stands out majestically. And finally, as the flight progresses, you see sweeping aerial views of the glaciers of southeastern Alaska, including Glacier Bay National Park. From the air you get a clear sense of the glaciers as rivers of ice.
Juneau began when Joe Juneau and Richard Harris discovered gold there. It is said that Joe Juneau wept because he had made more money than he could ever spend in a lifetime. There were three major mines and a stamp mill. Juneau was selected as the state capital, historically, though it has been overshadowed by Anchorage as a developed area and a population base. There are about 300,000 Alaskans in metro Anchorage and only about 31,000 in Juneau, out of a total population in the state of only about 723,000. Most of the people in Juneau work for the state or federal government.
Once in Juneau, visit the Mendenhall Glacier, where you can touch and walk on glacial ice. Mendenhall is one of 16 glaciers in the 1,500 square miles of ice fields around Juneau. See also the Alaska State Museum, with its elaborate collection of artifacts. This museum and the museum in Fairbanks at the University are excellent introductions to the state.
Stop for a drink at the lively Red Dog Saloon, walk past the State Capital Building, and visit the historic Baranof Hotel.
From there, it is only a short walk to the Mount Roberts tram, which can take you to the top of the mountain for a spectacular view of the waterways, city, and other mountains.
Leaving Juneau, a marine ferry can take you up the Lynn Canal to Skagway, a town that boomed when miners seeking passage to the Yukon needed a staging area. Looking at the map, it was determined that traversing the Chilkoot Pass and then taking rivers downstream was the best way. Canadian authorities required that miners assemble a year’s supply of provisions before proceeding.
Skagway’s main attraction is a walk around the historic area, with a stop at the Park Service headquarters for a brochure on the Klondike Gold Rush National Historic Park. There you’ll see photos of canvas fold-up boats that hopeful miners used on the Yukon River to get their supplies southward. The walls of the Park Service headquarters celebrate quotes from Robert Service’s poetry, with a constant theme: human perseverance in the face of crushing adversity. Be sure to see the Skagway presentation of the Soapy Smith Show to get a sense of the Gold Rush of 1898 and this consummate local con man.
Sitka lies south of Juneau and is accessible only by cruise ship, ferry boat, or aircraft.
Sitka was populated by Tlingit Indians for thousands of years. Russia watched the area with interest after Vitus Bering sighted the Alaskan coast in 1741. In 1799, Russian Alexander Baranov began construction of fortifications at Sitka. Baranov intended to colonize Alaska for Russia and to develop the fur trade. The Tlingits resented Russian infringement, burning their fort and killing most of the people in 1802. Baranov returned in 1804 with the warship Neva and 1,000 men. He fought a decisive battle against 700 armed Tlingit, after which the Tlingit retreated and the Russians formally established their colony of New Archangel. Be sure to see St. Michael’s Russian Orthodox cathedral and its historic icons, some from the 14th century. The cathedral was built between 1844 and 1848, burned in 1966, then was reconstructed as an exact replica.
Because of the declining fur supply, the Crimean War, and Russia’s inability to defend Alaska, Russia eventually decided to sell Sitka and all of Alaska to the U.S., in 1867, for $7,200,000, or about 2 cents per acre. The revived interest in the Russian heritage here includes the New Archangel Dancers, who entertain visitors with Russian folk dancing.
A half-mile from St. Michael’s Cathedral is the National Historic Park, where you can see Tlingit Indians practice wood carving, sewing, and jewelry making. At the historic park you can walk along a path to the site where the great battle of 1804 pitted the Russians against the fortified Tlingits, who were eventually overcome because of Russian firepower. Adjacent to the path you’ll see Tlingit and Haida totem poles. Today about a third of Sitka’s 9,000 people are Tlingit. Nearby, visit the Sheldon Jackson Museum, a missionary’s collection of artifacts gathered from the various native groups in Alaska. The museum is on a college campus of the same name, where 200 students attend. You’ll see salmon-skin garments and a host of other artifacts of the Indian culture, including the ceremonial eating bowls of the Tlingit.
Seeing Sitka via a cruise ship port stop is the main mode of access to the area.
For Juneau information, see the Juneau Convention and Visitors Bureau’s website at http://www.traveljuneau.com.
Glacier Bay National Park
Glacier Bay National Park, west of Juneau, is the glacial prima donna among our national parks. Bluish rivers of ice slowly push their way to the water’s edge. As you watch, amidst the silence, massive chunks of ice fall and crash into the water, making a sudden thunderous boom. For these special sights, about 400,000 visitors each year come to Glacier Bay National Park. About 90 percent of these visitors see Glacier Bay from the comforts of a cruise ship.
Within the park you are likely to see eagles and bears along the water’s edge. Humpback whales, orcas or killer whales, minke whales, seals, and dolphins disport themselves in the chilly waters.
The major geological phenomenon of interest here is the rapid retreat of glaciers. Park Service maps record the advance or retreat of specific glaciers. Two hundred years ago the entire region was covered with glaciers. When Captain George Vancouver explored the area in 1794, his log book recorded that his progress was impeded by an impenetrable mass of glaciers covering Glacier Bay. He found the ice mass 4,000 feet thick, 20 miles wide, and 100 miles long. By 1879, observer John Muir found that the ice had retreated 48 miles up the bay.
Glacier Bay is a premier example of retreating glaciers, as well as specialized forms of glaciers, including hanging glaciers (glaciers that hang on mountainsides) and tidewater glaciers (glaciers that come to the water’s edge). The area serves as a laboratory for the study of how plants successively colonize land newly opened up by retreating glaciers.
The study of retreating glaciers by modern scientists attempts to define their interaction with and effect upon the weather. The study is important because, around the world, glaciers and polar ice store more fresh water than all our lakes and rivers, groundwater, and the atmosphere combined. Glaciers form when snow fall exceeds snow melt.
Cruise ships or park service concession boats take you north along the Johns Hopkins Inlet and the Tarr Inlet to see the glaciers. Onboard Park Rangers present a running commentary on glacial realities.
Reid, a tidewater glacier, is the first major glacier that comes into view. There are 12 tidewater glaciers in the park. They are much rarer than land-bound glaciers. The intense blue of the glacier occurs because water crystals, formed under pressure, align to reflect blue light. As icebergs float away from the glacier after breaking off, they endanger navigation because their underwater size is uncertain. Rock and sediment in the ice may weigh down all but the tip of the iceberg.
Lampugh Glacier has a massive stream of melting glacial water pouring from its base.
At John Hopkins Glacier the cruise ships pause and drift. You can hear the roaring sound of ice crashing into water as the glacier slowly breaks apart. Tlingit Indians called this sound “white thunder.” In the John Hopkins area, substantial flows of glacial ice pass the boat. The major phenomenon of retreating glaciers becomes evident at John Hopkins when you look at Park Service maps. The known forward face of the John Hopkins Glacier in 1907 was about 15 miles further into the sea than its present position.
Moving up the Tarr Inlet, you see retreating Margerie Glacier.
For information on Glacier Bay National Park, see the Park Service website at http://www.nps.gov/glba.
If you make an Alaska Grand Tour, as suggested here, you will sample a satisfying selection of our largest state.
Alaska: If You Go
For overall tourism information on Alaska, contact the Alaska Travel Industry Association at http://www.travelalaska.com.
Other helpful websites are distributed throughout this article as the subject is discussed.
by Lee Foster
A trip to Fairbanks takes you to the interior of Alaska, a landscape far more severe than the temperate coastal areas of Anchorage or Juneau-Skagway-Sitka.
At Fairbanks the winters are cold and dark, with temperatures dropping commonly to 45 degrees Fahrenheit below, without considering the wind chill factor. Such conditions can provoke introspective self knowledge or cabin fever approaching madness, depending on your temperament. A sobering detail at the University of Alaska campus is that all the parking lot stalls have electric sockets where you plug in the heater cables on your engine to keep the motor from freezing up while you attend classes. The electrical cost to keep a car plugged in overnight, producing enough heat to save the engine, is about $5. In Fairbanks, you need to be tough to survive.
Summer in Fairbanks, when most visitors come, offers a more hospitable environment. It is light so long during the day that a famous midnight baseball game played on June 21 requires no electric lights. Parents allow their children to play outside long after the usual bedtime, well aware of the need for humans, as well as plants, to absorb as much sunlight as possible in the luxurious but brief sun time.
The winters of Fairbanks engender a sense of community in those who remain. The cold months are so severe that mutual help is crucial for survival. Fairbanks’ citizens tend to look after each other, as they must. As an example of the daily challenge of winter life here, the house in which President Ronald Reagan stayed during his 1983 visit, while he rested for the China trip and met with the Pope, had no running water. On the night before his arrival, cold burst the water pipes.
Fairbanks is not always that cold, however. While the thermometer may plunge for a spell, the statisticians insist that the average January temperature is indeed 12 degrees Fahrenheit above zero. Adding to the darkness and cold is a condition called “ice fog,” in which liquid in the air crystallizes, forming a white haze in the brief daily sunlight hours of winter. If you tend toward depression, a sedentary lifestyle, and the comforts of alcohol, Fairbanks is not what the doctor ordered. To survive here, you must be spirited and resourceful.
One consolation in winter, however, is the sport of dog mushing, the official state sport. Dog mushing becomes an international competition in February. Mushers come from all over Alaska, Canada, and from the northeast U.S. as well. The popularity of this sport is increasing and the practical use of dogs in Alaska is growing. If you forget to plug in your car or snowmobile during a Fairbanks cold spell, the engine will freeze up and be useless. Dogs don’t exhibit such behavior. Dogs, however, require about a salmon a day or substantial amounts of commercial dog food to survive. The Musher’s Museum in Fairbanks, an interesting touring stop, celebrates this dog heritage. The famous annual races, the Iditarod and the Yukon Quest, test the ultimate in dog and human performance.
In Fairbanks, the observant eye can’t help but be amused by details of life that indicate the traveler has entered another realm. For example, there is a golf course in Fairbanks. In fact, it is the most northerly USGA-rated course in the US. But it had no greens (until recently). The “greens” were called “greys.” Greys were grey-sand greens. When your ball landed on the grey, you were permitted to dig it out of the sand. You were then permitted to take a roller, a kind of sod roller present on every green, and carefully roll out a pathway across the sand between your ball and the cup. Eventually, however, green astroturf replaced the traditional sand.
Fairbanks considers itself the Golden Heart of Alaska because of the substantial gold discoveries here, in the middle of the country, in September 1900.
Typically for Alaska, Fairbanks has been a boom and bust town. If anything, tourism may ultimately reduce more transient cycles in the community. The booms occurred when gold was discovered in 1902, when attention focused on Alaska as a defense post in World War II, and when pipeline employees were cashing their $30/hour paychecks during the building of the 800-mile pipe 1973-1977.
Getting to Fairbanks
As with any Alaska trip, transportation and lodging must be assured in advance because both are limited, especially in the summer.
After arriving at Anchorage, you can fly to Fairbanks. You can also take the train or, if you wish, rent a car for the drive there. The drive is long and the roads are poor. The Westmark Fairbanks is one of the dependable lodgings. There are also a few classy restaurants, such as the Bear’n Seal or the Pump House, which situates you over the river. Try the regional specialty, reindeer sausage.
Three interesting details of the Fairbanks airport should be noted. The motif in the lobby is an heroic early-day bush plane. A sign as you boarded your flight, in the pre 9-11 era, was an only-in-Alaska phenomenon. The sign read, “Before boarding, please check your ulus.” Ulus, popular souvenirs, are the bone (later steel) knives used by Athabascan women to scrape moose hides and perform other tasks. The runways include one long watery landing strip in which float planes, used by the bush pilots, line up wing to wing.
If you drive or train to Fairbanks, you’ll pass the town of Nenana, which boasts a special annual celebration. Each winter a huge tripod is placed on the ice at the middle of the Nenana River. A long cord attaches the tripod to the prominent town clock. The locals (and interested citizens statewide) place sizable numbers of $2 bets on the exact minute in spring when the ice in the river will break up, the tripod will fall, the clock will stop, and a blow-out celebration to end winter cabin fever will begin. Each year the winner takes home a cash prize over $100,000. All participants do their best during the celebration to banish memories of darkness and the long winter.
History of Fairbanks
For the last 30,000 years Athabascan Indian people have survived here, putting most of their energy into the search for food. They ate salmon and game, especially moose, that they learned to kill with stone spears at great risk to themselves. They had a hard life, with an average life expectancy of 25-30 years, living in small extended-family groups, the maximum population numbers that their hunting and gathering skills could support.
Only in relatively recent years, at the turn of the century, did the first white men penetrate the region. Boats of traders came as part of the Gold Rush in the Yukon. Missionaries soon followed the Gold Rushers. Flu and smallpox wiped out many of the Indians.
One of the interesting experiences available to the traveler here acquaints you with both the Indians and the riverboat world of the Gold Rush traders, a kind of Mark Twain world of the north.
The outing takes place on a sternwheeler named Riverboat Discovery. The tour is run by the Binkley family, which has been operating riverboats here since 1898. Only in the last two decades have these trade and postal boats become tourism boats. The trip takes you down the spring-fed Cheena River and up the glacial Tanana River. Glacial rivers are full of pulverized rock, called “rock flour,” ground up by the weight and friction of the slipping ice. Like the Missouri, this kind of river water is “too thick to drink and too thin to plow.”
Rivers were the roads of commerce during the great Gold Rushes of Alaska. Near Fairbanks, the Cripple Creek strike was worth $100 million in gold then, which would be $1 billion now.
You disembark at a riverbank habitation simulating an Athabascan Indian village. There you see how king and chum salmon were caught in fish wheels and dried or smoked. The salmon fed not only the Athabascans, but their sled dogs, on which they relied for winter transportation. You see how food was stored in high caches, small storage houses placed on poles out of the reach of bears and other mammals. Several young Athabascan women give talks and demonstrations during the trip.
How hard life was for the Athabascans becomes apparent as you visit the area. The lushness of summer growth is deceptive because it is so brief. Life was a continual struggle for the Athabascans, who spent almost all of their time searching for food. The moose, especially, was a great prize because it might yield 1,300 pounds of meat. Athabascans ate salmon during the seasonal runs. Berries were abundant, briefly, in summer.
Athabascans were the last group to make the migration from Russia across the Bering Sea ice bridge. The Apaches and Navajos of the American southwest are an extension of the tribe, based on a shared language structure. More Indians living today speak varieties of Athabascan than any other Indian language.
Main Attractions of Fairbanks
Orient yourself in Fairbanks by stopping at the downtown Log Cabin Information Center and its adjacent Pioneer Park, noted for a bronze statue of a pioneer family and the engraved names of all the original families who settled the area. As in Anchorage, a log cabin has been chosen as the building for visitor information. Throughout the state you’ll see a surprising number of modern log cabins as standard houses. The downtown Fairbanks log cabin is a particularly handsome example. The logs are massive white spruce from the panhandle area around Sitka. The basalt stones of the fireplace are from Denali. The sod roof on the cabin is a frequent practice, providing added insulation. Some people even grow vegetables and flowers on their roofs. Next to the log cabin you’ll find a swiveling signpost marker indicating the distances to various places in the U.S. and around the globe. Fairbanks is as far north as most travelers get, except for the dedicated few who take a charter flight beyond the Arctic Circle.
At the Information Center you can get brochures for a walking tour of Fairbanks. You can also get information on a city tour, if you aren’t already booked for one. The distances to places like the University and the pipeline, two prime stops, are such that you will need some transportation to get there. Public transportation won’t do, so either use your own vehicle, take a tour, or plan to pay a taxi the high rates commanded in Alaska for all services. A tour is the most economical and efficient approach for most travelers.
A downtown walk can take you from the Information Center along the Cheena River bank to see remnants of homes and buildings from the era when trader E. T. Barnette, gold discoverer Felix Pedro, and legal arranger Judge James J. Wickersham founded the town. Wickersham asked Barnette to name the town, when the post office was established, after Wickersham’s friend, Senator Charles Fairbanks from Indiana.
I once had the pleasure of walking through the old Fairbanks area with author Stan Patty, who was born here. Stan’s father founded the university and served as a mine manager. Stan showed me the spacious log house that his father built here in the 1930s, complete with a room for Stan’s mother’s grand piano. Even on the ragged edge of the Alaska tundra, there was a thirst for culture. The small town had an excellent library, which sparked Patty’s long and distinguished literary career. To repeat our walk, wander in the rectangle formed by 8th, Cowles, Front, and Noble Streets. The typical housing pattern here was to add on new rooms to the small, original structures.
Although the river may be flowing generously during the summer melt and flooding is possible, the Fairbanks area is relatively arid, getting only 12 inches a year rainfall, compared with the 50-150 inches common in southeast Alaska.
Aside from the Riverboat Discovery, be sure to see the Alaska Museum at the University of Alaska. All of the state is divided into sections in the museum, with each section represented by the genius of its lifestyle and crafts. A huge Kodiak brown bear greets you in the foyer. One of the unusual exhibits is an ox-like animal that was attacked and killed by lions, then frozen in the tundra some 60,000 years ago, preserving its carcass as if in a supermarket freezer. Now the carcass is restored to its moment of death.
At the University, you can tour the agricultural experiment station, which attempts to breed selected forms of grains and vegetables suitable for Alaska. Wheat of high protein content has been one of the successes. Research on musk ox and caribou helps document the astonishing skills of these animals at surviving in one of the harshest climates known to mammals.
A city tour of Fairbanks is recommended as an efficient way in which to comprehend the diverse pleasures of the region. Inquire about the city tours at your motel. On the two-hour tour, you’ll see the defining symbol of modern life in Alaska, the 800-mile pipeline that brings oil from Prudoe Bay in the Arctic down to Valdez, the ice-free port east of Anchorage.
Seeing the pipeline is a little like seeing grizzly bears or glacial ice up close. These are monumental Alaskan experiences. At one stop along the pipeline, you can stick your hand through a hole in the outer pipe, past the fiberglass insulation, to feel the 140-degree Fahrenheit warmth of the interior pipe and flowing oil. The oil is kept warm because of the friction created from pumping it at high speed through the pipe. In order that the permafrost will not be damaged by the warmth, about half of the pipe is elevated, wherever permafrost occurs. The warmth of the oil is crucial for the oil to flow rather than congeal at times of extreme cold. Major oil fields were discovered in 1968 and the pipeline was finally built, 1973-1977, after numerous safeguards were assured to reduce its environmental impact. The pipeline actually takes up only 14 square miles of land in its route and can be disassembled at a later date, if and when its usefulness has been exhausted. About 20,000 people worked on the pipeline during the boom years of construction. They earned $1000 per week, but living expenses in Fairbanks were also astronomical. Workers traded a guarantee of high wages for a no strike clause in their contract. Today the pipeline transmits about 1.5 million barrels of oil a day, 365 days a year.
In the evening, savor the Alaskaland salmon bake, an excellent meal, and then watch the entertainment offered at the Eskimo-Indian Olympics, a test of practical physical feats needed to survive in the far north. The remarkable feature of these Olympics is that cooperation, rather than competition, is required for survival, as it is in real life in the tough Alaskan outdoor environment. After the Olympics show, walk over to the Palace Theater and Saloon show, a musical revue that celebrates the spirit of Alaska from the Russian period to the oil era.
After you have visited Fairbanks, the full impact of the Alaskan state flag begins to register. The flag consists of a golden Big Dipper and North Star on a blue background. The blue stands for the blue of the state’s sea, sky, lakes and rivers, and state flower, the forget-me-not. The gold stars reflect the dreams of the gold rushers and the bright stars of the night sky. Alaska is seen as the North Star in the Union, a star with a strong and steady light.
Side Trips from Fairbanks
Casual side trips from Fairbanks are not a plausible prospect. There are few roads and no facilities beyond the outskirts of the town. Air flights, however, can take you from here to the Arctic or to the Yukon. One of the best such trips is a bush plane ride to the Eskimo village at Anaktuvuk Pass. Again, the distances are vast and confirmed modes of travel, as well as confirmed lodging, are crucial.
Fairbanks: If You Go
Further information on Fairbanks comes from the Fairbanks Convention and Visitor Bureau at http://www.explorefairbanks.com.